International Seapower Symposium
The International Seapower Symposia (ISS) are a series of biennial meetings of the world's chiefs of navy that has met at the United States Naval War College since 1969. The proceedings of these, symposia since ISS XVI in 2003, are published on the Internet.
With the objective of promoting mutual understanding among the several leaders of the world's maritime nations, the First International Seapower Symposium (ISS I) was convened at the Naval War College. This four-day symposium was conceived by the President of the Naval War College, Vice Admiral Richard G. Colbert, U.S. Navy, who served as host for the ISS I. The Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Thomas H. Moorer. As a result of the success of this symposium, plans were made to continue these discussions as a biennial event. All International Seapower Symposia, since, have been conducted at the Naval War College, and hosted by the incumbent Chief of Naval Operations with only two exceptions. Early fall dates have been selected to take advantage of both the normally good weather and also the relaxed atmosphere in Newport.
The Third International Seapower Symposium met from 15–19 October 1973 with Admiral Elmo R. Zumwalt, Jr.. In a departure from the traditional discussion of strategy and military force, the Symposium examined, in some depth, the non-military uses of naval forces in the maritime world. Fifty-four delegates represented thirty-eight nations.
The Fifth International Seapower Symposium was held on 2–5 October 1979. Delegations representing Forty-nine nations attended ISS V, one more than the previous record. Admiral Thomas B. Hayward was host for ISS V, which was titled: "The Role of Navies in a World of Peace.
The Ninth International Seapower Symposium was held on 25–28 October 1987 with Admiral Carlisle A.H. Trost as its host. The theme for ISS IX was "Maritime Power in an Era of Low Intensity Conflict." Fifty-four nations attended. Agreement was reached to establish the Western Pacific Naval Symposium.
Admiral Frank B. Kelso II hosted the Eleventh International Symposium from 6–9 October 1991. The theme for ISS XII was "Emerging Cooperative Maritime Roles in a Changing World Environment." Fifty-seven nations were represented.
The Thirteenth International Seapower Symposium was held at the Naval War College from 5–8 November 1995. Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Jeremy Boorda, was the host for this year's Symposium, which was titled: "Partnership ... From the Sea." There were one hundred thirty-two delegates from sixty-seven nations taking part in this 4-day event.
"Maritime Strategies for a Naval Century" was the title for the Fifteenth International Seapower Symposium. Admiral Jay Johnson hosted the event from 7–10 November 1999, in Newport, Rhode Island. One hundred fifty-two delegates representing seventy nations were in attendance.
The theme for the Seventeenth International Seapower Symposium was "A Global Network of Nations for a Free and Secure Maritime Commons." ISS XVII held at the Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island, from 20–23 September 2005 was hosted by Chief of Naval Operations, ADM Mike Mullen, USN. Attendees included 55 CNO counterparts, with the overall number of 137 delegates from 70 nations, and 43 Naval Attaches.
The theme for the Eighteenth International Seapower Symposium was "Forging Cooperative Solutions for International Maritime Security." ISS XVIII held at the Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island, from 16–19 October 2007 was hosted by Chief of Naval Operations ADM Gary Roughead, USN. Attendees included 69 CNO counterparts, 21 Commandants of Coast Guards and 16 War College Presidents. Over 100 nations were represented, and it was here that the US Navy announced their new maritime strategy, moving the focus from sea combat to a broader base that incorporated the prevention of combat.